View the original community article here
Last tested: Sep 30, 2019
If you hit "rebuild derived tables and run" from the explore page, it will rebuild the entire dependency chain. That means if I have a child PDT that is based on a parent PDT, if I am querying the child and hit rebuild derived tables and run, it will rebuild both the parent and child.
If you REALLY want to rebuild a child table without triggering parent tables to rebuild you can make a change to the child PDT code and push to production (this can be arbitrary like a space for example)