Table calculations make it easy to create ad hoc metrics. They are similar to formulas that are found in spreadsheet tools like Excel. Table calculations appear as green columns in the data table, rather than as blue columns (dimensions) or orange columns (measures).
The last column in the following table uses a table calculation to combine three fields in the data using the concat
function.
Table calculations can perform mathematical, logical (true/false), lexical (textbased), and datebased calculations on the dimensions, measures, and other table calculations in your query. The formulas that you use to execute these calculations are called Looker expressions (Lexp).
Table calculations are different from LookMLdefined fields and custom fields
There are a few differences between table calculations and LookMLdefined fields defined in LookML:
 Table calculations give anyone who has the appropriate permissions the ability to create calculations that are based on LookMLdefined fields, rather than the ability to create LookMLdefined fields, which require that the user have development permissions and understand LookML.
 Table calculations operate on the results from your query after it has run, as opposed to LookMLdefined or custom fields, which are part of the query that is run against the database. In other words, first you select a set of dimensions and measures and run your report as normal, and then you can base table calculations on the data in that report.
 Although table calculations are simpler and quicker to create than LookMLdefined fields, they are not as easily controlled as LookMLdefined fields. Since any user can create a table calculation, they might not be the “official” calculations. Keep this tradeoff in mind as you decide between LookMLdefined fields and table calculations, since Looker leverages LookML to maintain a single source of truth.
There are a few differences between table calculations and custom fields:
 Custom fields generate SQL that will run against the database, similar to a LookMLdefined field. Table calculations are executed postquery and do not run against the database.
 Table calculations are dependent on data from the data table; custom fields are not.
Table calculation fields appear next to dimensions and measures in the table. If you want to reuse your table calculations in the future, be sure to save your Explore as a Look or as a dashboard tile.
Creating table calculations
To allow users or groups to create table calculations, your Looker admin must give those users or groups access to the feature by granting them the create_table_calculations
permission.
Looker’s Explore page has a builtin Looker expression editor to help you create table calculations, custom fields, and custom filters. If you are a Looker developer who is creating a data test to verify the logic of your model, you can also use the Looker expression editor to build a Looker expression, then copy the expression into your data test’s expression
parameter.
Before you create a table calculation, make sure that all the fields you want to use in the table calculation have been selected from the field picker, and that you have run the query.
There are two possible ways to access the Looker expression editor from the Explore page:
 Using a calculation’s threedot Options menu in the Custom Fields section of the field picker
 Using the Data bar (the only way to create table calculations if your instance is not enabled for custom fields)
Using the Custom Fields section of the field picker to create table calculations
To create a table calculation with the Custom Fields section of the field picker:
 Open the Custom Fields section of the field picker.
 Select Add.
 Select Table Calculation to open the Edit table calculation popup.
Then, for each table calculation:
 Select a calculation type from the Calculation dropdown. The options for a Custom expression display by default.
 Add the calculation definition, including selecting a shortcut calculation’s Source field, as desired. Only numeric fields that appear in the Explore’s data table are eligible for calculation types other than Custom expression.
 If Custom expression is selected from the Calculation dropdown, enter a Looker expression in the large text box to create your calculation. You can only create table calculations from fields that appear in the Explore’s data table. Looker expressions can be quite simple; or they can use as many fields, functions, and operators as your business logic requires. The expression you create can evaluate to a number, date, string (text), or Boolean (true/false).
 The Creating Looker expressions documentation page explains how to create Looker expressions and how the editor can assist you.
 Select a format other than the default from the Format dropdown, if desired.
 Enter a new calculation name other than the default as desired. The calculation name appears in the field picker and in the data table.
 Select + Add Description to add an optional description of up to 255 characters that can give other users more context or information about the table calculation.
 Select Save.
The new calculation will automatically appear in the data table and in the Custom Fields section of the field picker. As with other fields, you can select the calculation’s name to add or remove it from a query. You can also hover over the field to reveal more options that are available for that calculation.
Using the Data bar to create table calculations
You can also create a calculation by selecting the Add calculation button from the Data bar to open the Edit table calculation menu. If your Looker instance is not enabled for custom fields, this is the only way to create table calculations.
Then, for each table calculation:
 Select a calculation type from the Calculation dropdown. The options for a Custom expression display by default.
 Add the calculation definition, including selecting a shortcut calculation’s Source field, as desired. Only numeric fields that appear in the Explore’s data table are eligible for calculation types other than Custom expression.
 If Custom expression is selected from the Calculation dropdown, enter a Looker expression in the large text box to create your calculation. You can only create table calculations from fields that appear in the Explore’s data table. Looker expressions can be quite simple; or they can use as many fields, functions, and operators as your business logic requires. The expression you create can evaluate to a number, date, string (text), or Boolean (true/false).
 The Creating Looker expressions documentation page explains how to create Looker expressions and how the editor can assist you.
 Select a format other than the default from the Format dropdown, if desired.
 Enter a new calculation name other than the default as desired. The calculation name appears in the field picker and in the data table.
 Select + Add Description to add an optional description of up to 255 characters that can give other users more context or information about the table calculation.
 Select Save.
The new calculation will automatically appear in the data table and in the Custom Fields section of the field picker. As with other fields, you can select the calculation’s name to add or remove it from a query. You can also hover over the field to reveal more options that are available for that calculation.
Shortcuts for common calculations
If you have the permissions to create and edit table calculations, you can perform a shortcut calculation on certain numeric fields that are in an Explore’s data table, including other table calculations, and excluding custom fields, in one of the following ways:
 Using a field’s data table gear menu
 Using the Custom Fields section (only available if your Looker instance is enabled for custom fields)
 This method lets you customize the table calculation as you create it, such as renaming, adding an option description, or selecting a different format other than the default.
The following section describes the types of available calculation options.
Types of common calculation shortcuts
Several types of calculations are available as shortcut options. The following table lists each available calculation along with its description, input, Looker expression (Lexp), the default value format, and the default name of the calculation. You can specify a different name or value format by editing your calculation.
For common calculation shortcuts that are only available for pivoted results, see the table of common pivot calculation shortcuts on this page.
The order in which an Explore’s data table is sorted can impact calculations that are based on a value’s position relative to other values in a column, such as Percent of previous, Percent change from previous, Percent of previous column, Percent change from previous column, and Percent of row. Make sure an Explore’s data table is sorted accordingly.
Calculation  Description  Input  Lexp  Format  Name 

% of column% of column 
The row value divided by the sum of values in the column. When the row limit has been reached, this calculation only includes values in the data table. 
field_1

field_1/sum(field_1)

% (0 decimal places) 
Percent of view_name field_name

% of previous% of previous 
The current row’s value divided by the value of the row below. 
field_1

field_1/offset(field_1, 1)

% (0 decimal places) 
Percent of previous  view_name field_name

% change from previous% change from previous 
The difference between the current row’s value and the value of the row below, divided by the value of the row below. 
field_1

field_1/offset(field_1, 1)  1

% (0 decimal places) 
Percent change from previous  view_name field_name

Rank of columnRank of column 
The rank of a row’s value among all values in the column. When the row limit has been reached, this calculation only includes values in the data table. 
field_1

rank(field_1,field_1)

Default formatting 
Rank of view_name field_name

Running totalRunning total 
The cumulative sum of the current row’s value and all previous row values in the column. 
field_1

running_total(field_1)

Default formatting 
Running total of view_name field_name

When Explore results are pivoted, there are more common calculation shortcuts available for pivoted measures.
The following table lists the available calculations for pivoted measures, including each calculation’s description, input, Looker expression (Lexp), and the value format and default name of the calculation if a different value format or custom name is not otherwise specified:
Using a field’s data table gear menu to use shortcuts for common calculations
 Select the gear menu next to the field’s name in the data table. In this example, the user chooses to perform a calculation on the Inventory Items Count measure, and selects that field’s gear menu.
 Select Calculations to display the available calculation types.
 Select a calculation type. The example below uses % of previous to compare the count of inventory items with the previous month’s count of inventory items.
 Pivot calculation types will not appear unless Explore results are pivoted.
The new calculation will automatically appear in the data table:
The new calculation will also appear in the Custom Fields section of the field picker. As with other fields, you can select the calculation’s name to add or remove it from a query. You can also hover over the field to reveal more options that are available for that calculation, including editing the calculation.
Using the Custom Fields section to use shortcuts for common calculations
If your Looker instance is enabled for custom fields, and you want to select a format or name other than the default, or add a description when using a common calculation shortcut, start with the Add button on The Custom Fields section:
 Open the Custom Fields section of the field picker.
 Select Add.
 Select Table Calculation to open the Edit table calculation popup.
 Select a calculation type. This example uses % of previous to compare the count of inventory items with the previous month’s count of inventory items.
 Pivot calculation types will not appear unless Explore results are pivoted.
 Select the field on which you want to perform the calculation. Only numeric fields that appear in the Explore’s data table will be available to choose from. In this example, the user chooses to perform a % of previous calculation on the Inventory Items Count measure.
 Optionally, select the Format dropdown to choose a predefined format or create a custom format for the results. If you create a custom format, use Excelstyle formatting as described on the Adding custom formatting to numeric fields documentation page. If no selection is made, Looker uses a default format.
 Rename your table calculation from the default name, if desired. The calculation name appears in the field picker and in the data table.
 Select + Add Description to add an optional description of up to 255 characters that can give other users more context or information about the table calculation.
 If you are finished creating the table calculation, select Save to add the calculation to the Explore.
The new calculation will automatically appear in the data table:
The new calculation will also appear in the Custom Fields section of the field picker. As with other fields, you can select the calculation’s name to add or remove it from a query. You can also hover over the field to reveal more options that are available for that calculation, including editing the calculation.
Duplicating table calculations
If the Custom Fields Labs feature is enabled for your instance, and you’re allowed to create a table calculation, you can also duplicate existing table calculations. Duplicating and then editing table calculations can be helpful if you’d like to create multiple table calculations with only small differences (for example, 30day, 60day, or 90day sums).
To duplicate a table calculation:
 In the field picker, expand the Custom Fields section.
 Select the threedot Options menu for the table calculation that you want to duplicate.
 Select Duplicate.
The duplicated table calculation appears below the original, using the name of the original table calculation plus the word “Copy” appended to the end:
Next, you can edit the duplicated table calculation.
Editing table calculations
If you have the permissions to create table calculations, you also can edit existing table calculations that you or other users have created.
There are two possible ways to edit table calculations:
 Using a calculation’s threedot Options menu in the Custom Fields section of the field picker
 Using a calculation’s data table gear menu (the only way to edit table calculations if your instance is not enabled for custom fields)
Editing a calculation using the field picker threedot Options menu
If your Looker instance is enabled for custom fields and you are able to create table calculations, you can use the field picker to edit table calculations.
To edit a table calculation with the field picker:
 Expand the Custom Fields section.
 Select the threedot Options menu for the table calculation that you want to edit.
 Select Edit to open the Edit table calculation popup.
 Select a new calculation type from the Calculation dropdown, if desired.
 Change the calculation definition, including a shortcut calculation’s Source field, as desired. Only numeric fields that appear in the Explore’s data table are eligible for calculation types other than Custom expression.
 If Custom expression is selected from the Calculation dropdown, either add a Looker expression to, or edit an existing Looker expression in, the large text box. You can only create table calculations from fields that appear in the Explore’s data table.
 Select a new format from the Format dropdown, if desired.
 Enter a new calculation name, as desired. The calculation name appears in the field picker and in the data table. If you have changed anything on a table calculation, consider modifying the name to match.
 Add or update an optional field description of up to 255 characters with details about the table calculation, including its intended use.
 If there is an existing description, the Description box will automatically appear. If there is no existing description, select + Add Description to add an optional description.
 Select Save.
Editing a calculation using the data table gear menu
You can also edit a calculation by using the calculation’s data table gear menu. This is the only way to edit a table calculation if your instance is not enabled for custom fields:
 If custom fields are enabled, select Edit from the field’s gear menu to open the Edit table calculation popup. If custom fields are not enabled, select Edit Calculations.
 Select a new calculation type from the Calculation dropdown, if desired.
 Change the calculation definition, including a shortcut calculation’s Source Field, as desired. Only numeric fields that appear in the Explore’s data table are eligible for calculation types other than Custom expression.
 If Custom expression is selected from the Calculation dropdown, either add a Looker expression to, or edit an existing Looker expression in, the large text box. You can only create table calculations from fields that appear in the Explore’s data table.
 Select a new format from the Format dropdown, if desired.
 Enter a new calculation name, as desired. The calculation name appears in the field picker and in the data table. If you have changed anything on a table calculation, consider modifying the name to match.
 Add or update an optional field description of up to 255 characters with details about the table calculation, including its intended use.
 If there is an existing description, the Description box will automatically appear. If there is no existing description, select + Add Description to add an optional description.
 Select Save.
Deleting table calculations
If you have the permissions to create table calculations, you also can delete table calculations that you or other users have created. When you delete a table calculation, it disappears from the Explore but not from any Looks or dashboard tiles that use that field. Also, anyone using a URL for an Explore that had the custom field will still have the field.
There are two possible ways to delete table calculations:
 Using a calculation’s threedot Options menu in the Custom Fields section of the field picker
 Using a calculation’s data table gear menu (the only way to delete table calculations if your instance is not enabled for custom fields)
Deleting a calculation using the field picker threedot Options menu
If your Looker instance is enabled for custom fields and you are able to create table calculations, you can use the field picker to delete table calculations. Additionally, you can use the method using a field’s gear menu in the Explore data table.
To delete a table calculation with the field picker:
 Expand the Custom Fields section.
 Select the threedot Options menu for the table calculation that you want to delete.
 Select Delete.
You can also use the keyboard shortcuts CommandK (Mac) or Ctrl+K (Windows) to delete custom fields.
You can reinstate a custom field that you’ve deleted by selecting the back arrow on your browser.
Deleting a calculation using the data table gear menu
You can also delete a calculation by selecting Remove from the calculation’s data table gear menu:
This is the only way to delete a table calculation if your instance is not enabled for custom fields.
You can also use the keyboard shortcuts CommandK (Mac) or Ctrl+K (Windows) to delete custom fields.
You can reinstate a custom field that you’ve deleted by selecting the back arrow on your browser.
Sorting table calculations
To sort on a table calculation, select the field name at the top of the column, just as you would a dimension or measure.
When table calculations cannot be sorted
Sorting on a table calculation works similarly to sorting on a dimension or measure in Looker. However, there are two important differences that prevent sorting in some scenarios:
 Table calculations are created after the data is retrieved from your database, which means that when you sort a table calculation, you can only sort the data that is already displayed.
 Some table calculations are applied to multiple rows within the same column (for example, when using an
offset()
function (see more on using theoffset
andpivot_offset
functions in Looker’s Help Center). In these cases, sorting the table calculation would change its results and is therefore disabled.
Specific scenarios where you can’t sort a table calculation include the following:
 When you’re using a calculation that hits a row limit
 When you’re using a dimension or measure after you’ve already sorted by a table calculation
 When you’re using a table calculation that makes use of an offset
Calculations that hit a row limit
If the number of rows in your query exceeds the row limit that you’ve set, you will not be able to sort table calculations. This is because table calculations are only based on the rows that are displayed. Therefore, if you hit a row limit, the table calculation might be missing some rows that it should be sorting into your results. If you run into this issue, you can try increasing your row limit (up to 5,000 rows).
For example, the following table displays the 10 topselling categories in an ecommerce store, sorted by total sales. Notice that the 10row limit has been reached, which you’re warned about by the yellow bar displayed at the top of the table:
However, if you want to show the top 10 categories by number of orders instead, the results would look like this:
Sorting a dimension or measure after sorting a table calculation
As indicated in the Calculations that hit a row limit section on this page, table calculations are only based on the rows that are displayed. In contrast, sorting by a dimension or a measure goes back to your database to make sure it finds the correct rows. As a result, you should start sorting with dimensions and measures. Then, when the correct data has been returned from your database, you can sort those results based on a table calculation.
Calculations that use an offset function cannot be sorted
Any table calculation that makes use of an offset cannot be sorted, because the sort order of the rows would change the results of the offset.
For example, the following table calculation displays the percentage change in weekly sales for the Accessories category:
This only makes sense if the results are sorted by the week.
Using table calculations in visualizations
Just like LookMLdefined dimensions and measures, table calculations are automatically displayed in visualizations.
In addition, you can use table calculations to decide which rows of your data should be displayed in a visualization. We’ll use the following example to explore this feature; this example includes weekly sales information about the Accessories category. Note that the underlying data table includes the dimension Orders Created Week and the measure Total Sale Price, along with a table calculation called Percent of Previous Week Sales, which compares the revenue of each week against the previous week:
You can now prevent certain rows of data from showing up in the column chart. To do so, you’ll create a table calculation that evaluates to true or false, then hide the false values (which will appear as “No” entries in your data table). You don’t want the formula to result in the word “true” or “false”; rather, it should be a condition that is either true or false.
To achieve this, you could create a table calculation, Exceeds Previous Week Sales, that evaluates whether the Percent of Previous Week Sales calculation is greater than 1:
${percent_of_previous_week_sales} > 1
This will result in a table that includes a new table calculation that evaluates each row against the Exceeds Previous Sales calculation, and displays a Yes or a No, depending upon whether the percent of previous is greater than 1:
To hide all the rows where a particular week’s revenue did not exceed the revenue of the previous week, select the logical calculation’s gear icon and select Hide “No”s from Visualization.
The resulting visualization will now display only the weeks that exceeded the previous week’s revenue:
One common use case for this feature is hiding the first or last row from a visualization, since many types of analyses create bad rows at the beginning or end of a table. For example, you might decide to hide the first or last row when you are calculating running totals, when you have a partial day that ends a date analysis, or, like the following example, when you are calculating a percent of the previous row:
To get rid of that row, simply create a new table calculation to filter out the null value by using the is_null
logical function:
NOT is_null(${percent_of_previous_week_sales})
Then, hide the row by selecting Hide “No”s from Visualization from the table calculation’s data table gear icon menu.
Considerations for using table calculations
 All the fields that you use in your table calculations MUST be part of your initial query.
 Formulas must be in lowercase.
ROUND
will not work, butround
will.  Table calculations will only operate over rows that are returned in your query. If there is a 500 row limit, the 501st row will not be considered.
 If you add a total row to your data table, some table calculations that perform aggregations, such as calculations that use
percentile
ormedian
, might not add up as you expect. This is because table calculations calculate totals using the values in the total row, not using the values in the data column.  Always use leading zeroes for decimals less than 1. For example, 0.95 will work, but .95 will cause an error.
 Using the CommandK (Mac) or Ctrl+K (Windows) keyboard shortcut will clear all table calculations, including custom fields. To reinstate your table calculations, select the back arrow on your browser. You may also need to rerun your query.